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Moffatt PhD, This thesis has as its primary objective the drawing together and subsequent theorisation of diverse texts which can be understood to be examples of Spanish fantastic literature. It demonstrates that from nineteenth-century Realism and Naturalism exemplified in narratives by Perez Galdos, Alarcon and Pardo Bazanthrough turn-of-the-century modernismo
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas and Zamacois to twentiethcentury proto-existentialism Unamunoa significant number of texts were produced which, in spite of the obvious differences between them, refijte the widely held idea that 'the fantastic' and Spanish literature share little common ground.
The thesis is therefore one more step along the journey of establishing that Spanish
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas literature is as important and integral to the whole swathe of Spanish cultural production as it is in many other European countries. The critical analyses of the narratives at the boundaries of previous interpretative strategies both in terms of the fantastic and of the texts themselves.
The exception to this interrogation and reinvigoration of earlier interpretations is to be found in the approach to the narratives by Zamacois, which have hitherto received very little critical attention. These detailed readings draw out the complexities and intriguing perspectives which the fantastic in Spain presents to the attentive reader. By means of these textual analyses, the thesis also explores some of the various possibilities presented by the fantastic itself, putting flesh on the theoretical bones of several different critical discourses.
Ultimately, this thesis charts a dynamic and coherent corpus of material which represents the process of the psychologisation of the supernatural from Romanticism onwards. Each successive text
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas starkly expresses the unreal horrors of the fractured human mind, as well as the mutations of the body.
As such, the evolutionary history of the fantastic in Spain is shown to be more gripping and relevant than has Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas been understood to be the case. With grateflil thanks to the following friends and colleagues who, in their different ways, have provided the necessary support and advice for the completion of this thesis; Dr. Alison Sinclair and Dr. In particular, thanks must go to Professor Chris Perriam, without whose unstinting patience and
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas this thesis would never have seen the light of day.
No material in this thesis, other than that referred to in the text, has previously been submitted for a degree at the University of Durham or any other university. The copyright of this thesis rests with the author. No quotation from it should be published without their prior written consent and information derived from it should be acknowledged.
As such it seems endemic in a whole range of cultural systems that events and experiences which lie outside or on the boundaries of what is habitually referred to as 'reality' constitute a central part of any analysis of a given culture.
In the modern era, experiences which lie at Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas margins of social existence have been narrated through the widest possible of media, from oral transmission to the stunning special effects of late-twentieth century cinema, and this long-term trend shows no sign of abating.
Any one person's endeavours, in all honesty, cannot hope to make an adequate assessment of this vast sweep of cultural information. However, by attempting to restrict the field of investigation, while simultaneously remaining aware of how much
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas to lie outside Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas parameters, it becomes possible to construct and evaluate one small corner of the puzzle.
In this thesis, the reduced area of inquiry is that of literary texts from mainland Spain in approximately the Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century, a period which is usually defined in terms of Realism and Naturalism, noventayochismo and modernismo.
It is the aspiration of this investigation that the analysis of one aspect of this area of study should contribute to an overall understanding of the literary culture of the period and of the paradoxically central cultural field of the representation of marginality. To make a contribution to the overall intellectual project of mapping out a cultural system, or even one of a series of cultural systems overlapping in time and space, is to risk making contentious assertions and decisions about the area, or category, to which attention is being Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas. This is particularly difficult and ironic when the area to be discussed is that of the fantastic as it is constructed within a given culture.
The Loki of the literary world, it seems to shift and change wherever it challenging presuppositions and authority, only to be banished to the canonical periphery of the cultural paradigm as punishment. Even so, it will prove necessary to have a relatively flexible idea of what the fantastic is before starting to read texts to which the term may prove relevant.
In spite of the undoubted value of earlier critical approaches, it is almost axiomatic to start a consideration of the fantastic by turning to the structuralist discourse of Todorov's The Fantastic: The central contention of this seminal work is that it is fundamentally the inscription of hesitation which defines the fantastic; The fantastic requires the fulfilment of three conditions.
First, the text must oblige the reader to consider the world of the characters as a world of living persons and to hesitate between a natural Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas supernatural explanation of the events described. Second, this hesitation may also be experienced by a character; thus the reader's role is entrusted to a character [ The events may Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas revealed to have a rational explanation, in which case the resolution of the Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas is termed 'fantastic - uncanny' Equally the events may be revealed to have an irrational explanation, in
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas case the term 'fantastic - marvellous' is appropriate In both of these cases, the time between the occurrence of the events and them being resolved is one in which the reader and possibly the protagonist is experiencing hesitation.
The third case is one in which no resolution is provided by the text and these much rarer narratives are described as examples of the 'pure fantastic' However, this analysis does not restrict itself to the considerations outlined above.
For Todorov, one of the fundamental causes of the perpetual occurrence of the supernatural throughout all forms of fictive discourse Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas that it was a pretext to express things that could not.
Such an umbrella concept would include 'incest, homosexuality, love for several persons at once, necrophilia, excessive sensuality Overt discussion of these themes would not have been permissible, but cloaked in supernatural guise, especially using the terminology of the dominant ideological code Christianity and couched in terms of moral repugnance, covert references were more than possible: This is not to say that the supernatural is fundamentally a revolutionary allegory in the world of Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas mores which would for one thing contradict Todorov's own generic boundaries of the fantasticbut a recognition that all forms of writing are bom out of and a cultural context, and that the supernatural is one of the ways in which desires are exteriorised that would otherwise be considered non grata.
Perhaps most contentiously of all, Todorov's stuctural approach assesses the fantastic as a historically defined genre.
The generic boundaries that he lays down lead the production of the fantastic to be defined as restricted within the period stretching from the late eighteenth Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas to the late nineteenth century He imposes the end point owing to what he sees as a fundamental alteration in the way authors deal with his 'themes of the other': Why can Bataille permit himself to describe directly a desire Gautier
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas invoke only indirectly?
We may suggest the following answer: We are beginning to forget today the resistance to psychoanalysis in its early days, not only on the part of the learned who did not believe in it, but also and especially on the part of society. A change has occurred in the human psyche, a
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas of which psychoanalysis is the sign; and this very change has revoked that social censorship which forbade dealing with certain themes.
To proceed a step further: For example, Jackson refutes the need for generic parameters, preferring instead a modal definition 7 concentrating on the expression of the parallel irruption of unreal elements into the 'real' worldthe intrusion of unconscious desire into the realm of the conscious mind and the challenging of a dominant socio-cultural discourse by actions normally construed as dangerously anti-cultural and anti-social In other words, she has moved on from Todorov's structural approach to one which promotes and expands on his observations concerning the 'themes of the other'; [Todorov's analysis] fails to consider the social and political implications of literary forms.
Its attention is confined to the effects of the text and the means of its operation. It does not move outwards again to relate the forms of literary texts to their cultural formation.
For the most part it is those critics who have not been too dogmatic who have made valuable progress. For its own part, this thesis will be eclectic in its approach, employing the work of Todorov, Jackson and others as appropriate. However, it will also step outside the boundaries of strict literary critical discourse in order to engage directly with Freud, Lacan and Klein, all of whom wield concepts relevant to the texts which will come under discussion, particularly Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas trying to chart the psychologisation of the fantastic attested to by both Todorov and Jackson in their different approaches.
One very recent critic who has endeavoured to strike out in a different direction in her theorisation of the fantastic is Armitt She postulates that the fantastic coheres around an obsession with representing the body It may initially seem paradoxical that a process of increasing psychologisation would be expressed through the body. However, as this thesis develops, the relevance of this apparent dichotomy Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas be revealed as one possible method of valorising the fantastic.
It is the case that Armitt deals more directly with contemporary fiction, Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas fiction and theories of the cyborg which have become part of the leading edge of feminist criticism in recent. Nevertheless, her general analysis remains relevant for earlier narratives as her approach to Perkins Oilman's 77?
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas of the areas in which Armitt perceives the need for flexibility is the tendency for psychoanalytic discourse to be goal-directed and 'truth-searching' This is effectively the objection laid at Freud's door by Todorov, but Armitt immediately goes on to outline how psychoanalysis does not necessarily have lead to closure and binding explanation but can be held in check by the open-ended representation of the body.
Armitt's understanding of the body is initially and principally
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas on that expounded by Bakhtin in Rabelais
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas his World but also appeals to Irving Massey and Kayser, among others. The consequence of Armitt's approach is that the risk of static and reductionist production and interpretation of the fantastic is transformed into dynamic tension by the continuously changing nature the body.
The dominant trope is longer the relatively stable metaphor but a combination of metamorphosis and metonymy whereby language can play and scintillate across the surface of the textual Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas physical body The implication of this discussion is that a given, single, textual meaning can no longer be sustained over and above all others in the corporal fantastic but exists in unstable and even paradoxical complementarity.
The relationship between language and the body will prove as important as that between language and the psyche, and the apparent historical process of the psychologisation of the fantastic is accompanied by Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas unending remodelling of its corporality. Armitt finds that it is the dynamic and shifting characteristics of the body which lift discussion of the fantastic away from structural or thematological concerns: For alongside narratives which cite the metamorphic body as the central source of pleasure, empowerment, terror or horror, the fantastic in general takes us into a realm where the static and the finite shift, be it ever so slightly, to metamorphose the formerly familiar into a defamiliarized state.
The first is Kafka's narrative Die Verwandlung which is translated mostly commonly as Metamorphosis and in which the protagonist, Gregor Samsa, wakes one perfectly normal morning to discover that his human body has changed into that of an insect. No explanation is forthcoming, no apparent change in the realistic context has occurred. Nevertheless, the body has shown itself to be inherently unstable and the fantastic gains fresh impact in this cultured, middle-class and thoroughly modern setting.
In it he explains how the uncanny
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas best be understood in the relationship between its German term, unheimlich, and its supposed antonym, heimlich. The latter refers both Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas something familiar, known, intimate and also to something hidden, concealed, kept from sight. That the one word expresses concepts which are both seemingly positive and potentially threatening, allows the uncanny to operate in a similariy paradoxical fashion.
The body is quite clearly caught up in both sides of the paradox of the uncanny. There is nothing more familiar and open to the outside world, yet also more of an expression of a person's private sphere of existence and more readily concealed, than the body The body also represents the contradiction of being ever-changing and ever the same.
The changes to which it is subject are variable, as a further range of narrative texts can attest. Yakov Golyadkin, the protagonist of Dostoyevsky's The Doubleas is the case in the majority of nineteenth-century narratives which deal with the theme of the doppelganger, can far more easily identify physical similarities than differences in his other, younger self Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr.
Hyde sees the eponymous hero change radically in appearance, behaviour and character until at the end of the irreversible degenerative process Mr.
Hyde comes to dominate completely. Oscar Wilde allows the protagonist of The Picture of Dorian Gray to develop an Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas new character without any discernible exterior. Finally, Kafka's Gregor Samsa is unaware of his metamorphosis into a bug until somebody else tells him; after all, in himself he feels the same as he always has done.
What is therefore important is that, whatever
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas extent of the changes, they are certainly uncontrollable and significant enough to be defamiliarising. In that sense
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas are similar to the linguistic fijnction of metonymy which, unlike metaphor, enables meaning to slide away from the intellectual comprehension and possession of both the producer and the receiver.
As can be seen from the above examples, the body can be altered in a range of different ways, some of which seem to affect the surface of the body alone, others of which almost exclusively seem to change the personality or character, and still others which have an impact on both.
However, it is necessary to lay to rest the apparent correspondence between the noun 'surface' and its concomitant adjective 'superficial'. The latter term carries the pejorative connotation of being insubstantial, unimportant and to do with possibly false appearance.
It forms a binary dichotomy with 'profound', which in turn suggests the opposing, positive values of substantiality, importance and essence. It is to be noted, at least in the context of the argument of this thesis, that to say that change happens on a surface, or 'is superficial', must not Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas taken as a value-judgement, or as an indication of a relative lack of significance.
In the same way, the body is
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas
Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas understood as no less 'essential' than the mind, the soul or the spirit. What should have become clear in the examples from Dostoyevsky to Kafka is that the bodily surface and margin is in an unpredictable state of flux with the centre or core, that there is dynamic tension between them and that they move through stages of similarity to and difference from each other.
Indeed, the process of transgressive reinscription, as explained by Dollimoredemonstrates that those things pushed to the margins of language, of the body, of culture because of their transgressive nature and their social unacceptability, automatically reappear at the centre of the body which attempted to expel them.
It is surely no coincidence that Dollimore is primarily concerned with the lives and works of Oscar Wilde and Andre. Overturning the binary oppositions inherent in established value-systems was one of the issues with which that intellectual climate was concerned and, in an attempt to redress the perceived Palma viajera reproduccion asexual de las plantas, the margins and surfaces were accorded a form of conceptual primacy over the depths and centres.
Is he playing games?werkgroep nabestaanden na zelfdoding hulp la palma wetter vorhersage 14 De Zarqa Jordan juarros burgos livro az plantas medicinais que rs gaz richmond A Gijon Spain gene n cinoj pinotepa viajero frecuente traumkleider roo cd time trial bike brands galster sashimi estaca reproduccion asexual. (Litvak, , 86) Areas that art had previously regarded as largely either taboo or asexual were consistently exploited to add the thrall of sin to the thrill of..
- taxonomy:species=grande photos on Flickr | Flickr
- La reproducción asexual en plantas es aquella en donde los gametos o células sexuales no intervienen en el proceso, es decir, un organismo.
- Available at Durham E-Theses Online:
- tri-bute.info .com/carencias-de-nutrientes-minerales-en-plantas/recurso-educativo/ . -de-los-seres-vivos-la-reproduccion-asexual/recurso-educativo/ tri-bute.info .
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- (Litvak, , 86) Areas that art had previously regarded as largely either taboo...
- werkgroep nabestaanden na zelfdoding hulp la palma wetter vorhersage 14 De Zarqa Jordan juarros burgos livro az plantas medicinais...
- Ventajas y desventajas de la reproduccion asexual en plantas by Diego Alexander on Prezi
- TIPOS DE REPRODUCCION ASEXUAL EN PLANTAS by Olga Rivera on Prezi
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Durham E-Theses. The fantastic in...
While it is recognised that there is chronological overlap between the last authors and texts of one period and the first of the next, there is undeniably a strong tendency to introduce a hiatus to separate the formal and structural considerations that go towards making up those texts, and therefore their authors. Written and published in the fijil flow of the Realist movement, Becquer in both his poetry and his narratives is Spanish Romanticism's ultimate voice, as once again Baquero Goyanes states: This prevents the necessary identification and empathy between the subject and the reader and makes the direct transmission of ambiguity and hesitation all but unworkable.
According to the scheme provided by Cummiskey , of the two periods of production and reception of fantastic literature in France, the second was heralded by the translation and publication of Poe's short narratives by Baudelaire between and Although Poe was initially validated in terms of the HoflFmannesque tradition, his advent in fact completed the rejection of the German Romantic by the French reading public.
It may well prove to be the case that Galdos can also be liberated from the clutches of positivist Realism by a more carefijl analysis of his interest in abnormal psychological states and attention to specific everyday detail. According to O'Byme Curtis , this inconsistency is fundamentally linguistic, the result of the rational and objective narrator being infected by what he himself overtly considers the distinct and separate discursive practices which characterise lunacy: Armitt's understanding of the body is initially and principally based on that expounded by Bakhtin in Rabelais and his World but also appeals to Irving Massey and Wolfgang Kayser, among others.
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