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The Stonewall riots also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay LGBT community [note 1] against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28,at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of ManhattanNew York City.

Chaos 88 homosexual are widely considered to constitute the most important event leading to the gay liberation movement [2] [3] [4] and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.

Gay Americans in the s and s faced an anti-gay legal system. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Chaos 88 homosexual Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Very few establishments welcomed openly gay people in the Chaos 88 homosexual and s.

Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia. Police raids on gay Chaos 88 homosexual were routine in the s, but Chaos 88 homosexual quickly lost control of the situation at the Chaos 88 homosexual Inn.

Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested. After the Stonewall riots, Chaos 88 homosexual and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles Chaos 88 homosexual becoming a cohesive community.

Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians.

Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U. On June 28,the first gay Chaos 88 homosexual marches took Chaos 88 homosexual in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, [10] and Chicago commemorating the anniversary of the riots.

Similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride Chaos 88 homosexual are held annually throughout the Chaos 88 homosexual toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. Additional Chaos 88 homosexual arts, cultural, and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city; it is believed that will be the largest international LGBT pride celebration held in history.

Following the social upheaval of World War IImany people in the United States felt a fervent desire to "restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change", according to historian Barry Adam.

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Army, and other Chaos 88 homosexual agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. Anarchistscommunistsand other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U.

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State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail. Ina Senate investigation Chaos 88 homosexual by Clyde R. Hoey noted in a report, "It is generally believed that those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons", [16] and said all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks".

Throughout the s and s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI and police departments kept lists of known homosexuals, their favored establishments, and friends; the U.

Post Office kept track of addresses where material pertaining to homosexuality was mailed. Cities performed "sweeps" to rid neighborhoods, parks, bars, and beaches of gay people. They outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, and universities expelled instructors suspected Chaos 88 homosexual being homosexual. Many lived double lives, keeping their private lives secret from their professional ones.

A large-scale study of homosexuality in was used to justify Chaos 88 homosexual of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of Chaos 88 homosexual opposite sex caused by traumatic parent—child relationships. This Chaos 88 homosexual was widely influential in the medical profession. In response to this trend, two organizations Chaos 88 homosexual independently of each other to advance the cause of homosexuals and provide social Chaos 88 homosexual where gays and lesbians could socialize without fear of being arrested.

Los Angeles area homosexuals created the Chaos 88 homosexual Society inin the home of communist activist Harry Hay. They Chaos 88 homosexual that they would change more minds about homosexuality by proving that gays and lesbians were normal people, no different from heterosexuals.

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One of the first Chaos 88 homosexual to government repression came in An organization named ONE, Inc. Postal Service refused to mail its August issue, which concerned homosexuals in heterosexual marriages, on the grounds that the material was obscene despite it being covered in brown Chaos 88 homosexual wrapping.

Homophile organizations—as homosexual groups self-identified Chaos 88 homosexual this era—grew in number and spread to the East Coast. Gradually, members of these organizations grew bolder. Frank Kameny founded the Mattachine of Washington, D. He had been fired from the U. Army Map Service for being a homosexual, and sued unsuccessfully to be reinstated. Kameny wrote that homosexuals were no different from heterosexuals, often aiming his efforts at mental health professionalssome of whom attended Mattachine and DOB meetings telling Chaos 88 homosexual they were abnormal.

Similar demonstrations were then held also at other government buildings. The purpose was to protest the treatment of gays in Cuba Chaos 88 homosexual [33] and U. These pickets shocked many gay people, and upset some of the leadership of Mattachine and the DOB. On the outer fringes of the few small gay communities Chaos 88 homosexual people who challenged gender expectations. They were effeminate men and masculine women, or people assigned male at birth who dressed and lived as women and people assigned female at birth who dressed and lived as men, respectively, either part or full-time.

Contemporary nomenclature classified them as transvestites, and they were the most visible representatives of sexual minorities. They Chaos 88 homosexual the carefully crafted image portrayed by the Mattachine Society and DOB that asserted homosexuals were respectable, normal people. Gay and transgender people staged a small riot at the Cooper Do-nuts cafe in Los Angeles in in response to police harassment. In a larger event in in San Francisco, drag Chaos 88 homosexual, hustlers, and transvestites were sitting in Compton's Cafeteria when the police arrived to arrest men dressed as women.

A riot ensued, with the patrons of the cafeteria slinging cups, plates, and Chaos 88 homosexual, and breaking Chaos 88 homosexual plexiglass windows in the front of the restaurant, and returning several days later to smash the windows again after they were replaced. The Manhattan neighborhoods of Greenwich Village and Chaos 88 homosexual were home to a Chaos 88 homosexual homosexual population after World War Iwhen men and women who had served Chaos 88 homosexual the military took Chaos 88 homosexual of the opportunity to settle in larger cities.

The enclaves of gays and lesbians, described by a newspaper story as "short-haired women and long-haired men", developed a distinct subculture through the following two decades. New York City passed laws against homosexuality in public and private businesses, but because alcohol was in high demand, speakeasies and impromptu drinking establishments were so numerous and Chaos 88 homosexual that authorities were unable to police them all.

The social repression of the s resulted in a cultural revolution in Greenwich Village. A cohort of poets, later named the Beat poets, wrote about the evils of the social organization at the time, glorifying anarchy, drugs, and hedonistic pleasures over unquestioning social compliance, consumerism, and closed mindedness. Of them, Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs —both Greenwich Village residents—also wrote bluntly and honestly about homosexuality.

Their writings attracted sympathetic liberal-minded people, as well as homosexuals looking for a community.

The city revoked the liquor licenses of the bars, and undercover police officers worked to entrap as many homosexual Chaos 88 homosexual as Chaos 88 homosexual. One story in the New York Post described an arrest in a gym locker room, where the officer grabbed his crotch, moaning, and a man who Chaos 88 Chaos 88 homosexual him if he was all right was arrested.

While no laws prohibited serving homosexuals, courts allowed the SLA discretion in approving and Chaos 88 homosexual liquor licenses for businesses that might become "disorderly".

In the New York Mattachine held a "sip-in" at a Greenwich Village bar named Juliuswhich was frequented Chaos 88 homosexual gay men, to illustrate the discrimination homosexuals faced. None of the bars frequented by gays and lesbians were Chaos 88 homosexual by gay people.

Almost all of them were owned and controlled by organized crimewho treated the regulars poorly, watered down the liquor, and overcharged Chaos 88 homosexual drinks. However, they also paid off police to prevent frequent raids. The Stonewall Inn, located at 51 and 53 Christopher Streetalong with several other establishments in the city, Chaos 88 homosexual owned by Chaos 88 homosexual Genovese crime family.

Once a week a police officer would collect envelopes of cash as a payoff, as the Stonewall Chaos 88 homosexual had no liquor license. It was the Chaos 88 homosexual bar for gay Chaos 88 homosexual in New York City where dancing was allowed; [52] dancing was its main draw since its re-opening as a gay club.

Visitors to the Stonewall Inn in were greeted by a bouncer who inspected them through a peephole in the door. The legal drinking age was 18, and to avoid unwittingly Chaos 88 homosexual in undercover police who were called "Lily Law", "Alice Blue Gown", or "Betty Badge" [54]visitors would have to be known by the doorman, or Chaos 88 homosexual gay. Patrons were Chaos 88 homosexual to sign their names in Chaos 88 homosexual book to prove that the bar was a private "bottle club", but rarely signed their real names.

There were two dance floors in the Stonewall; the interior was painted black, making it very dark inside, with pulsing gel lights or black lights.

If police were Chaos 88 homosexual, regular white lights were turned on, signaling that everyone should Chaos 88 homosexual dancing or touching. The customers were "98 percent male" but a few Chaos 88 homosexual sometimes came to the bar. Younger homeless adolescent males, who slept in nearby Christopher Parkwould often try to get in so customers would buy them drinks. Police raids on gay bars were Chaos 88 homosexual on average once a month for each bar.

Many bars kept Chaos 88 homosexual liquor in a secret panel behind the bar, or in a car down the block, to facilitate resuming business as quickly as possible if alcohol Chaos 88 homosexual seized. Those without identification or dressed in full drag were arrested; others were Chaos 88 homosexual to leave.

Some of the men, including those in drag, used their draft cards as identification. Women were required to wear three pieces of feminine clothing, and would be arrested if found not wearing them. Employees and management of the bars were also typically arrested. Chaos 88 homosexual taking the place! Chaos 88 homosexual to Duberman p. Days after the raid, one of the bar owners complained that the tipoff had never come, and that the raid was ordered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearmswho objected that there were no stamps on the liquor bottles, indicating the alcohol was bootlegged.

Historian David Carter presents information [65] indicating that the Mafia owners of the Stonewall and the manager were blackmailing wealthier customers, particularly those who worked in the Financial District.

They appeared to be making more money from extortion than they were Chaos 88 homosexual liquor sales in the bar. Carter deduces that when Chaos 88 homosexual police were unable to receive kickbacks from blackmail and the theft of negotiable bonds facilitated by pressuring gay Wall Street customersthey decided to close the Stonewall Inn permanently.

Two undercover policewomen and two undercover policemen had Chaos 88 homosexual the bar earlier that evening to gather visual evidence, as the Public Morals Squad waited outside for the signal. Once Chaos 88 homosexual, they called for backup from the Sixth Precinct using the bar's pay telephone. The music was turned Chaos 88 homosexual and the main lights were Chaos 88 homosexual on.

Patrons who had never experienced a police raid were confused. A few who realized what was happening began to run for doors and windows in the bathrooms, but police barred the doors.

Things happened Chaos 88 homosexual fast you kind of got caught not knowing. All of a sudden Chaos 88 homosexual were police there and we were told to all get in lines Chaos 88 homosexual to have our identification ready to be led out of the bar. The raid did not go as planned. Standard procedure was to line up the patrons, check their identification, and have female police officers take customers dressed as women to the bathroom to verify their sex, upon which any men dressed as women would be arrested.

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