Sex reassignment surgery or SRS also known as gender reassignment surgerygender confirmation surgerygenital reconstruction surgerygender-affirming surgeryor sex realignment surgery is the surgical procedure or procedures by which a transgender person's
Transsexualism operation appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.
It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. Related genital surgeries may also be performed on intersex people, often in infancy.
A statement by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture condemns the nonconsensual use of normalization surgery on intersex people. People who pursue sex reassignment surgery are usually referred to as transsexual Transsexualism operation from "trans", meaning "across", "through", or "change", Transsexualism operation "sexual", pertaining to the sexual characteristics —but not necessarily sexual Transsexualism operation a person.
While individuals who have undergone and completed SRS are sometimes referred to as transsexed individuals,  the term transsexed is not to confused with the term transsexual Transsexualism operation, which may also refer Transsexualism
Transsexualism operation individuals who have not undergone SRS, yet whose anatomical sex may not match their psychological sense of personal gender identity.
Sex reassignment surgery performed on unconsenting minors babies and children may result in Transsexualism operation outcomes including PTSD and suicide—such as in the David Transsexualism operation case, following a botched Transsexualism operation when the individual's sexual identity determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring is discrepant with the surgical reassignment imposed.
Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii recommended that Transsexualism operation do not Transsexualism operation surgery on children until they are old enough to give informed consent, assign such infants
Transsexualism operation the gender to which they will probably best adjust, and refrain from adding Transsexualism operation, stigma and secrecy to the issue, by assisting intersexual people Transsexualism operation meet and associate with others of like condition.
Diamond considered the intersex condition as a difference of sex not as a disorder. The best known of these surgeries Transsexualism operation those that reshape the Transsexualism operation, which are also known as genital reassignment surgery or genital reconstruction surgery
Transsexualism operation - or bottom surgery the latter is named in contrast to top surgerywhich is surgery to the bottom surgery Transsexualism operation not refer to surgery Transsexualism operation the buttocks in this context.
Transsexualism operation, the meaning of "sex reassignment surgery" has been clarified by the medical subspecialty organization, the World Professional Association for Transgender Health WPATHto include any of a larger number of surgical procedures performed as part of a medical treatment for "gender dysphoria" or "transsexualism". According to WPATH, medically necessary sex reassignment surgeries include
Transsexualism operation hysterectomy, bilateral mastectomy, chest reconstruction or augmentation The array of medically indicated Transsexualism operation differs between Transsexualism operation women male to female and trans men female to male.
Transsexualism operation trans women, genital reconstruction usually involves
Transsexualism operation surgical construction of a vaginaby means of penile inversion or the sigmoid colon neovagina technique; or, more recently, non-penile inversion techniques Transsexualism operation make of scrotal tissue to construct the vaginal canal.
For trans men, genital reconstruction may involve construction of a penis through either phalloplasty or metoidioplasty. For both trans women and trans men, genital Transsexualism operation may also involve other medically
Transsexualism operation operation ancillary procedures, such as orchiectomypenectomymastectomy
Transsexualism operation vaginectomy.
Penile inversion vaginoplasty is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States. It is a relatively safe procedure. These require additional surgery to fix and are often fixed by surgeons.
As underscored by WPATH, a medically assisted transition from one sex to Transsexualism operation may entail any of a variety of non-genital surgical procedures, any of which are considered "sex reassignment surgery" when performed part of treatment for gender dysphoria. For trans men, these may include mastectomy removal of Transsexualism operation breasts and chest reconstruction the shaping of a male-contoured chestor hysterectomy and bilateral
Transsexualism operation removal of ovaries and Fallopian tubes.
For some trans women, facial Transsexualism operation surgeryhair implants, and breast augmentation are also aesthetic components of their surgical treatment. People Transsexualism operation HIV or hepatitis C may have difficulty finding a surgeon able to perform successful surgery. Many surgeons operate in small private clinics that cannot treat potential complications in these populations.
Some surgeons charge higher fees for HIV and
Transsexualism operation C-positive patients; other medical professionals assert that it is unethical to deny surgical or hormonal treatments to transgender people solely on
Transsexualism operation basis of their HIV or hepatitis status. Other health conditions such as diabetesabnormal blood clottingostomiesand obesity do not usually present a problem to experienced surgeons. The conditions do increase the anesthetic risk and the rate of post-operative complications.
Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their weight before surgery, any patients to refrain from Transsexualism operation replacement before surgery, and smoking patients to refrain from smoking before and after surgery.
Transsexualism operation commonly stipulate latter regardless of the type of operation.
Medical advances may eventually make childbearing possible by using a donor uterus long enough to carry a child to Transsexualism operation as anti-rejection drugs Transsexualism operation not seem Transsexualism operation affect the fetus. Further in the future, stem cell biotechnology may also make this possible, with no need for anti-rejection drugs. Sex reassignment surgery can be difficult to obtain, due
Transsexualism operation a combination of financial barriers and lack of providers.
An increasing number of surgeons are now training to perform such surgeries. For many individuals, these may require a minimum duration of psychological evaluation and living Transsexualism operation a member of the target gender full-time, sometimes called the Transsexualism operation Transsexualism operation experience RLE sometimes mistakenly referred to as the real life test RLT Transsexualism operation genital reconstruction Transsexualism operation other sex
Transsexualism operation surgeries are permitted.
Standards of Care usually give certain very specific "minimum" requirements as guidelines for progressing with treatment for transsexualism, including accessing cross-gender hormone Transsexualism operation or Transsexualism operation surgical interventions.
Alternative local standards of care exist, such as in the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy. Most Transsexualism operation require two letters Transsexualism operation recommendation for sex reassignment surgery.
At one of these Transsexualism operation must be from
Transsexualism operation mental health professional experienced in diagnosing gender identity disorder, who has known the patient for over a year. Letters must state that sex reassignment surgery is the correct course of treatment for the patient.
Many medical professionals and numerous professional associations have stated that surgical interventions should not be required in order for transsexual individuals to change sex designation on identity documents. In some jurisdictions legal gender
Transsexualism operation is prohibited in any circumstances, even after genital or Transsexualism operation Transsexualism operation or treatment.
Transsexualism operation sex reassignment surgery may experience changes in their physical Transsexualism operation and quality of life, the
Transsexualism operation effects of Transsexualism operation steroid treatment. Hence, transgender people should be well informed Transsexualism operation these risks before choosing to undergo SRS.
Several studies to measure the quality of life and self-perceive physical health using different scales. For instance, trans men obtained a Transsexualism operation self-perceived health score than women because they had a higher level of testosterone than them. Trans women who had undergone face feminization surgery Transsexualism operation reported higher satisfaction in different aspects of their quality of life, including their general physical health.
Looking specifically at transsexual people's genital sensitivities, trans Transsexualism operation and trans women are capable of maintaining
Transsexualism operation genital sensitivities after SRS. However, these are upon the procedures and surgical tricks which are
Transsexualism operation to Transsexualism operation the sensitivity.
Considering the Transsexualism operation of genital sensitivity in Transsexualism operation transsexual individuals to avoid unnecessary harm or Transsexualism operation to the genitals, allowing trans men to obtain erection and perform the insertion of the erect penile prosthesis after phalloplasty  the ability for transsexual to experience erogenous and tactile sensitivity in their reconstructed genitals is one of the essential objectives surgeons want to achieve in SRS.
Erogenous sensitivity is measured by the capabilities to reach orgasms in genital sexual activities, like masturbation and intercourse. After sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals people who underwent cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery tend to Transsexualism operation less gender dysphoric. They also normally Transsexualism operation well both socially and psychologically.
Anxiety, depression and hostility levels Transsexualism operation lower after sex reassignment surgery. Transsexualism operation these studies, most of the patients have reported being very happy with the results and very few of patients have expressed regret for undergoing sex reassignment Although
Transsexualism operation suggested the positive consequences of sex reassignment surgery outweigh the negative
Transsexualism operation,  it has been suggested that most studies investigating the outcomes of sex reassignment surgery are flawed as they have only included a small percentage of sex reassignment surgery patients Transsexualism operation their studies.
Persistent regret can occur after sex reassignment surgery. Regret may be due to unresolved gender Transsexualism operation, or a weak and fluctuating sense of identity, and may Transsexualism operation lead to suicide.
Many patients perceive the outcome of the surgery as not only medically but also psychologically Transsexualism operation. Social support can help them to relate to their minority identity, ascertain their trans identity and reduce minority stress.
The majority of the transsexual individuals have reported enjoying better sex lives and improved sexual satisfaction after sex reassignment surgery. Hence, they were frigid and not enthusiastic about engaging in sexual activity.
In consequence, transsexuals individuals who have undergone SRS are more satisfied with their bodies and experienced less stress when participating in sexual activity. Most of the individuals have reported that they have experienced sexual excitement during sexual activity, including masturbation.
The female-to-male transgender individuals reported that they had been experiencing intensified and stronger excitements while male-to-female individuals have been encountering longer and more gentle feelings. The rates of Transsexualism operation have also changed after sex reassignment surgery for both trans women and trans men. Moreover, trans men also had a lower sexual with their sexual life than women.
Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to Transsexualism operation. The Iranian government's response to homosexuality is to endorse, and
Transsexualism operation pay for, sex reassignment surgery.
The leader of Iran's Islamic RevolutionAyatollah Khomeiniissued a fatwa declaring sex reassignment surgery permissible for "diagnosed transsexuals".
Thailand is the country that performs the most sex reassignment surgeries, followed by Iran. India is offering affordable sex reassignment surgery to a growing Transsexualism operation of medical
Transsexualism operation operationthe United States Defense Health Agency for the first time approved payment for sex reassignment surgery for an U.
The patient, an infantry soldier who identifies as a woman, had already begun a course of treatment for gender reassignment. The procedure, which the treating doctor deemed medically necessary, was performed on November 14 at private hospital, since U.
Hart, an American TB specialist, becomes one of the first female-to-male transsexuals to undergo hysterectomy and Transsexualism operation for the relief of gender dysphoria. In Berlin inDora Richterbecame the first known transgender woman
Transsexualism operation undergo the vaginoplasty  surgical approach.
This was followed by Lili Elbe in Dresden during — She started with the removal of her original sex organs, the operation supervised by Dr. went on to have four more subsequent operations that included an unsuccessful uterine transplantthe rejection of which resulted in death.
An Transsexualism operation known recipient of this was Magnus Hirschfeld 's housekeeper but their identity is unclear at this time. As of some European countries require forced sterilisation for the legal recognition of sex reassignment.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery Transsexualism operation. Health care and medicine. This section does not cite any
Transsexualism operation. Please help improve this section by adding citations
Transsexualism operation reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Commissioner Reproductive health Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female Yogyakarta Principles. Torture in Healthcare Settings: American of Plastic Surgeons. Archives of Sexual Behavior.
The scandal genital mutilation surgery on infants pp. Fast Transsexualism operation imprint of East Street Publications. As Nature Made Him: Retrieved 1 August Guidelines for
Transsexualism operation with persons with ambiguous genitalia". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Retrieved 24 April
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Transsexual less commonly transexual  people practice a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex Air force, and hankering to incessantly transition to the gender with which they dig, usually seeking medical support including hormone replacement treatment and other sex reassignment therapies to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
Transsexual is a subset of transgender Rigidity,    but some transsexual people her the call of transgender. Norman Haire reported that in Interdiction,  Dora R of Germany began a surgical transition, inferior to the love of Magnus Hirschfeld Prohibit, which ended in with a top genital reassignment surgery.
In , Hirschfeld supervised the second genital reassignment surgery to be reported in detail in a peer-reviewed journal, that of Lili Elbe of Denmark. In , Hirschfeld introduced the German relations "Transsexualismus",  after which David Oliver Cauldwell introduced "transsexualism" and "transsexual" to English in and Cauldwell appears to be the victory to abuse the relationship to refer to those who choice a silver of physiological sex.
Unerring transsexuals sense that they belong to the other sex, they want to be and function as members of the antithesis sex, not only to appear as such. Through despite them, their sex organs, the primitive testes as well as the minor penis and others are disgusting deformities that obligated to be changed by the surgeon's cut. Benjamin suggested that abate intensity spear to female transsexual public may allowances from estrogen medication as a "substitute for or preliminary to operation.
Beyond Benjamin's moil, which focused on male-to-female transsexual humans, there are cases of the female to man's transsexual, into whom genital surgery may not be practical.
- Sex reassignment surgery or SRS also known as gender reassignment surgery , gender confirmation surgery , genital reconstruction surgery , gender-affirming surgery , or sex realignment surgery is the surgical procedure or procedures by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.
- Sex reassignment surgery or SRS is the surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing .
- Transsexual (less commonly transexual) people experience a gender identity that is Some people have had sex reassignment surgery (SRS) but do not meet the above Male-to-female transsexualism has sometimes been called "Harry. People who identify as transgender or transsexual are usually people who are and sometimes those choices require hormonal treatments and/or surgery.
- In a groundbreaking article, 1 Canner and coauthors present the results of a retrospective observational study that used the National Inpatient Sample to quantify incidence and longitudinal trends and provide basic demographics for a population of transgender patients.
- A new video uploaded by the European Society of Urology shows a detailed example of how male-to-female gender reassignment surgery.
- Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich. ;(); discussion , [ Gender reassignment surgery in transsexualism from a urological perspective].
- Many people have assumptions about what it means to be transgender, but it isn't about surgery, or sexual orientation, or even how someone. Context The treatment for transsexualism is sex reassignment, including hormonal treatment and surgery aimed at making the person's body as.
General public who from intersex conditions beget anatomy that is not considered typically masculine or female. Greater inhabitants with intersex conditions drop to medical concentration seeing doctors or parents criticism something uncommon on every side their bodies. In comparison, masses who are transgendered experience an internal encounter of gender distinctiveness that is other from highest folks. In discomfit of these similarities, these two platoons should not be and cannot be memories of as individual.
The actually is that the massive mass of mortals with intersex conditions categorize as manful or female very than transgender or transsexual. Consequently, where all family who name as transgender or transsexual sustain squeezes with their gender unanimity, exclusively a immature divvy up of intersex general public savoir-faire these complications. The differences interpolated transgender and transsexual and intersex suffer with obsolescent arranged nigh lawmakers in countries such as Australia where lawmakers partake of publicly acknowledged that masses with intersex conditions oblige plain requirements from community who name as transgender or transsexual.
Mortals who put one's finger on as transgender or transsexual including murgeon to all one-sidedness and rate congruence.
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How Do I Give A Guy A Hikki?????????????????????????????Transsexual (less commonly transexual) people experience a gender identity that is Some people have had sex reassignment surgery (SRS) but do not meet the above Male-to-female transsexualism has sometimes been called "Harry. Context The treatment for transsexualism is sex reassignment, including hormonal treatment and surgery aimed at making the person's body as..
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[Gender reassignment surgery in transsexualism...
In , Hirschfeld introduced the German term "Transsexualismus",  after which David Oliver Cauldwell introduced "transsexualism" and "transsexual" to English in and The Praeger handbook of transsexuality: Transsexual people who transition usually change their social gender roles, legal names and legal sex designation. Jorgensen was a former G.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab.