ISI Impact Factor Prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction in three cities of China: To determine the age-adjusted prevalence of erectile dysfunction ED in 3 big cities of China and to explore its potential sociodemographic, medical and lifestyle correlates. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in three cities of China. Structured questionnaires were administered to 2 men, aged 20 - 86 years, by trained interviewers.
The age-adjusted prevalence of Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction was In the men above 40, the prevalence was The prevalence of ED increased with age. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were positively correlated with the increased prevalence. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as education, spouse companionship, living condition, cigarette and alcohol consumption or duration also have association with prevalence of ED.
This study demonstrated that ED was strongly correlated with age and other risk factors . Since then, many community-based studies on this subject were done in other countries, but the conclusions were not identical . The present study was designed to observe the real prevalence of ED and associated risk factors for Chinese in three big cities, Beijing, Guangzhou and Chongqing, located in the northernsouthern and western parts of China, respectively.
A total of 2 men 20 to 86 years old from three cities in China from Beijing, Guangzhou and from Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction were enrolled in the cross-sectional study.
The community physicians were trained to administrate the questionnaires and interview the participants in person. In order to obtain complete and accurate information, the questionnaires were requested to be filled in and returned on the spot. Among the 2 sets of questionnaires, 23 were ineligible due to incomplete fulfillment.
The questionnaires include 4 sections: The consumption of wine, beer or spirits was converted by their concentration into consumption of alcohol.
CIEF-5 was framed by the Chinese urologists and andrologists for the purpose of accommodating to the Chinese tradition. How often were you able to get an erection during sexual activity? When you attempted sexual intercourse, how often were you able to penetrate enter your partner?
During sexual intercourse, how often were you able to maintain your erection after you had penetrated entered your partner? When you attempted sexual intercourse, how often was it satisfactory for you?
How do you rate your confidence that you could get and keep an erection? The scores for various degree ED included mildmoderate and severe Statistical Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction was assessed by the c 2 test for categorical variables.
In men above 40 years, the prevalence was
Association of education level and the age-adjusted prevalence of ED. Age-adjusted odds ratios for ED: Association of self-reported disease with age-adjusted prevalence of ED.
The prevalence of ED elevated with the increase in cigarette
Li fei hui Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction sexual dysfunction and duration Figure 4.
The prevalence of ED was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers. The prevalence was significantly higher in subjects having drunk for more than 20 years than that in others.
Association of smoking, duration, and daily cigarette consumption with age-adjusted prevalence of ED. Black and boxes: Association of drinking, duration, and weekly alcohol consumption with age-adjusted prevalence of ED.
Erectile functioning is a complex response requiring intact psychological, neural and vascular components. As far as the global prevalence of ED is concerned, there are reports ranging between In this study, age was positively correlated with ED.
Of all risk factors selected, age had the strongest correlation with ED. This is similar to many studies conducted around the world where age was the single most important determinant of ED .
Besides physiological retrogressionaging also carries increased medical comor-bidity, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertensiondiabetes, etc. Education is another factor that is most likely selected by many investigators. The present data showed that education had a positive pertinence with the erectile function. Similar finding has been reached by other population-based studies .
In China, persons with lower education levels commonly Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction less attention to healthcare and have unhealthy lifestyle, such as smoking, drinking, etc. Cardiovascular disease was positively correlated with ED in this study. The incidence of cardiovascular disease was directly proportional to the prevalence of ED in many studies and
Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction might be the first sign of a serious cardiovascular disease .
In the Massachusetts Male Aging Study MMAS study, some of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension, smoking, obesity and dietary cholesterol and fat intake showed a prospective association with ED. Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction is another risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is closely correlated with obesity and dietary fat intake. Hyper-cholesterolemia may cause impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and oxidized LDL is the major causative cholesterol of the impaired relaxation response; A chain reaction, the production of superoxide radicals and functional impairment of eNOS may be a major cause of the functional Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction in the early Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction of hyper-cholesterolemia Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction. This study also showed the positive relationship between hyperlipidemia and ED.
Diabetes is another well-recognized risk
Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction of ED. In this study, the prevalence of ED in patients with diabetes was two times higher than that of other individuals. In the MMAS, the age-adjusted probability of complete ED in subjects with treated diabetes was three times greater than those without diabetes . The severity and prevalence of ED increased with poor glycemic controldiabetic neuropathy, duration of disease and type II diabetes mellitus .
The direct cause of ED in diabetes patients has not been elucidated and vascular disease is the most frequently cited. Other factors are medications, Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction neuropathy, gonadal dysfunction and impairment of neurogenic and endothelium mediated relaxation of penile smooth muscle .
The association between cigarette smoking and the risk of ED is confused in the present study. Subjects having smoked more than 20 years or consumed more than 20 cigarettes per day usually have higher prevalence of ED. In many other studies, cigarette smoking is an independent risk
Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction of ED. So it is difficult to detect the association between ED and smoking in cross-sectional studies.
There have been many controversial reports on this aspect. However, cigarette smoking did increase the risk of vascular diseases linked to ED and may amplify many risk factors of ED, such as heart disease, hypertension, drug effect, etc .
Alcohol drinking was inversely correlated with ED in this study. The Health Professional Follow-up Study  showed that moderate drinkers have a lower incidence of ED than either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. As we known, heavy alcohol consumption will lead to hepatic Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction that in turn will impair the metabolism of estrogen.
The present data suggested that long duration of drinking over 20 years significantly enhanced the risk of ED, while weekly alcohol consumption of less than ml has no association with the prevalence.
Psycho-environmental factors, such as spouse companionship and living condition, have ever been selected by other investigators . Our data Li fei hui wife sexual dysfunction that both spouse companionship and living condition have association with the prevalence of ED.
In developing countries, bad living conditions often impose adverse psychological effect on the sexuality and male erection. Also, as another important psychological factor of sexual activity, spouse companionship affects sexual desire and erectile function. This is the first large multiple community-based assessment of ED in China; a survey in three big cities indicates that the overall age-adjusted prevalence of ED is The support of the study from Pfizer Pharmacy is kindly acknowledged.
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