Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. There is also a history of Muslim — Parsi riots List of riots in Mumbai. Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of Indiabroad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minoritiesand the ground-level work being done by non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India.
Along with domestic organizations, international human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch publish reports  on acts of religious violence in India. Over to period, an average of people died every year from communal violence, or about 0. texts Ashokavadana and the Divyavadana mention a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the Buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra identified with Mahavirathe founder of Jainism.
On complaint from a Buddhist devotee, Ashokaan emperor of the Maurya Dynastyissued an order to arrest him, and subsequently, another order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana. Around 18, followers of the Ajivika sect were executed as a result of this order.
Ashoka burnt Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality and his entire family alive in their house. According to Ashokavadanaas a result of this order, his own brother, Vitashokawas mistaken for a heretic and killed by a cowherd.
Their ministers advised that "this is an example of the suffering that is being inflicted even on those who are free from desire" and that he "should guarantee the security of all beings".
After this, Ashoka stopped giving orders for executions. Sarao and Benimadhab Baruastories of persecutions of rival sects by Ashoka appear to be a clear fabrication arising out of sectarian propaganda. The Divyavadana divine storiesan anthology of Buddhist mythical tales on morals and ethics, many using talking birds and animals, was written in about 2nd century AD.
In one of the stories, the razing of stupas and viharas is mentioned with Pushyamitra. This has been historically mapped to the reign of King Pushyamitra of the Shunga Empire about before Divyavadana was written. Archeological remains Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality stupas have been found in Deorkothar that suggest deliberate destruction, conjectured to be one mentioned in Divyavadana about Pushyamitra.
The fictional tales of Divyavadana is considered by scholars  as being of doubtful value as a historical record. Historical records of religious violence are extensive for medieval India, in the form of corpus written by Muslim historians.
According to Will DurantHindus historically experienced persecution during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent. Lal in his book Theory and Practice of Muslim State in India Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality that between the years AD and AD, the population of the Indian subcontinent decreased from to million. Ghurye writes that religious violence between Hindus and Muslims in medieval India may be presumed to have begun soon after Muslims began settling there.
They continued through the Mughal Empire, and then in the British colonial period. During the British period, religious affiliation became an issue Religious communities tended to become political constituencies. This was particularly true of the Muslim League created inwhich catered exclusively for the interests of Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality Muslims Purely Hindu organizations also appeared such as the Hindu Sabha later Mahasabha founded in In the meantime Hindu-Muslim became more frequent; but they were not a novelty: When in he [Muhammad Ali Jinnah] became the first Governor General of Pakistan and the new border was demarcated, gigantic riots broke out Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality Hindus and Muslims.
Religious violence was also witnessed during the Portuguese rule of Goa that began in In early medieval India, there were numerous recorded instances of temple desecration by Indian kings against rival Indian kingdoms, involving conflict between devotees of different Hindu deities, as well as between Hindus, Buddhists and Jains. CircaChalukya armies invaded northern India where looted temples of Ganga and Yamuna.
In the 8th century, Bengali troops from the Buddhist Pala Empire desecrated temples of Vishnu
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality, the state deity of Lalitaditya 's kingdom in Kashmir. In the early 10th century, the Pratihara king Herambapala looted an image from a temple in the Sahi kingdom of Kangrawhich in the 10th century was looted by the Pratihara king Yasovarman.
In the early 11th century, the Chola king Rajendra I looted from temples in a number of neighbouring kingdoms, including Durga and Ganesha temples in the Chalukya Kingdom; Bhairava, Bhairavi and Kali temples in the Kalinga kingdom; a Nandi temple in the Eastern Chalukya kingdom; and a Siva temple in Pala Bengal.
In the midth century, the Chola king Rajadhiraja Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality a temple in Kalyani. In the late 11th century, the Hindu king Harsha of Kashmir plundered temples as an institutionalised activity.
In the late 12th to early 13th centuries, the Paramara dynasty attacked and plundered Jain temples in Gujarat. Vijayanagara king Krishnadevaraya looted a Balakrishna temple in Udayagiri inand he looted a Vittala temple in Pandharpur in In the 8th century, Muslim armies attacked Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the northwest parts of Indian subcontinent, now modern Pakistan and parts of Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Punjab in the early 8th century.
Muhammad bin Qasim and his army, assaulted numerous towns, plundered them Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality wealth, enslaved Buddhists and Hindus, and destroyed temples and monasteries. One fifth of the booty and slaves were dispatched back as khums tax to Hajjaj and the Caliph.
The conflict between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent may have begun with the Umayyad Caliphate in Sindh in The state of Hindus during the Islamic expansion in India during the medieval period was characterised by destruction of temples, often illustrated by historians Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality the repeated destruction of the Hindu Temple at Somnath   and the anti-Hindu
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
In the late 8th century, the army of Abu Jafar al Mansur attacked Hindu kingdoms in Barada and Kashmir, and took many children and women as slaves.
Similarly, adherents of Ali expelled Umayyad sympathizers and The Sultan replied with the message that his aim is to "obtain a complete victory suited to his zeal for the honor of Islam and Musulmans". King Jaipal then sent a new message to the Sultan and his Amir, stating "You have seen the impetuosity of the Hindus and their indifference to death. If you insist on war in the hope Partition Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality statistics of sexual immorality obtaining plunder, tribute, elephants and slaves, then you leave us no alternative but to destroy our property, take the eyes out of our elephants, cast our families in fire, and commit mass suicide, so that all that will be left to you to conquer and seize is stones and dirt, dead bodies, and scattered bones.
King Jaipal, after receiving this peace offer, assumed that peace is likely and ordered his army to withdraw from a confrontation. According to 17th century Persian historian FirishtaJaipal refused to pay the ransom, angering Sabuktigin. An alternate account of
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality 11th-century historian states, instead of waiting for the ransom tribute, Amir Sabuktigin and his army then attacked the kingdom of infidel Hindus.
Both historians then describe the religious violence included burning the Hindu villages and towns, massacre of people in numbers that Muslim historian
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality Utbi in Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality Yamini called "beyond number", demolishing of idol-temples, and the plundering of the wealth of the Hindu homes and king's treasure by Amir's friends and soldiers. Mahmud of Ghazni was a Sultan who invaded the Indian subcontinent from present-day Afghanistan during the early 11th century.
His campaigns included plundering and destruction of Hindu temples such as those at MathuraDwarka and others.
That infidel remained where he was, avoiding the action for a long time The Sultan would not allow him to postpone the conflict, and the friends of God commenced the action, setting upon the enemy with sword, arrow and spear,—plundering, seizing and destroying Swords flashed like lightning amid the blackness of clouds, and fountains of blood flowed like the fall of setting stars Noon had not arrived when the Musulmans had wrecked their vengeance on the infidel enemies of God, killing 15, of them, spreading them like a carpet over the ground, and making them food for beasts and birds of prey God bestowed upon his [the Sultan's] Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality such an amount of booty as was beyond all bounds and all calculation, including five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men and women.
Mahmud of Ghazni made at least seventeen raids into India,  against Hindus. Each campaign witnessed religious violence, killing of thousands of people, plunder and Mahmud returning with Hindu slaves and loot.
The lives of numerous Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality and Hindus were lost. Hindu females sold their jewelry and put Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality into providing war supplies.
The sixth war erupted in the fields of Punjab, where Ghazni troops had entered through Afghanistan. Thousands of Turk-Afghan Muslim soldiers were killed within the first hour. In
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality chaos of the battles, armies fled in different directions, and thousands of Hindus were hacked to death by the retreating army.
Mohammed Ghori raided north India and the Hindu pilgrimage site Varanasi at the end of the 12th century and he continued the destruction of Hindu temples and idols that had begun during the first attack in The first mosque built in Delhi, the " Quwwat al-Islam " was built with demolished parts of 20 Hindu and Jain temples.
There was religious violence in India during the reign of Alauddin Khaljiof the Khalji dynasty. The [Muslim] army left
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality After crossing those rivers, hills and many depths, The sea-resembling army moved swiftly, like a hurricane, to Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality. These riots were crushed with mass executions, where all men and even boys above the age of 8 were seized and killed.
In another act, he had the wives of suspects arrested, dishonored and publicly exposed to humiliation. The children were cut into pieces on the heads of their mothers, on the orders of Nusrat Khan. The campaign of violence, abasement and humiliation was not merely the works of Muslim army, the kazismuftis and court officials of Alauddin recommended it on religious grounds.
Halebid temple was destroyed.
The temples, cities and villages were plundered. The loot from south India was so large, that historians of that era state a thousand camels had to be deployed to carry it to Delhi.
InMalik Kafur entered the Srirangam temple, massacred the Brahmin priests of the temple who resisted the invasion for three days, plundered the temple treasury and the storehouse and desecrated and destroyed numerous religious icons.
After Khalji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty assumed power and religious violence continued in its reign. At Srirangam, the invading Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality desecrated the shrine and killed 12, unarmed ascetics.
The "Tarikh-i-Firuz Shah" is a historical record written during his reign that attests to the systematic persecution of Hindus under his rule. An order was accordingly given that the Brahman, with his tablet, should be brought into the presence of the Sultan The true faith was declared to the Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality and the course pointed out.
The Brahman was tied hand and foot and cast into it [a pile of brushwood]; the tablet was thrown on the top and the pile was lighted The tablet the Brahman was lighted in two places, at his head and at his feet The fire first reached his feet, and drew from him a cry, but the flames quickly enveloped his head and consumed him.
Behold the Sultan's strict adherence to law and rectitude. Under his rule, Hindus who were forced to pay the mandatory Jizya tax were recorded as infidels and their communities monitored. Hindus who erected a deity or built a temple and those who praticised their religion in public such as near a kund water tank were arrested, brought to the palace and executed.
Some Hindus had erected a new idol-temple in the village of Kohana, and the idolaters used to assemble there and perform their idolatrous Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality. These people were seized and brought before me. I ordered that the perverse conduct of the leaders of this wickedness be publicly proclaimed and they should be put to death before the gate
Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality the palace.
I also ordered that the infidel books, the idols, and the vessels used in their worship should all be publicly burnt. The others were restrained by threats and punishments, as a warning to all men, that no zimmi could follow such wicked practices in a Musulman country. The Muslim Turko-Mongol ruler Timur 's invasion of Delhi was marked by systematic slaughter and other atrocities on a large scale, inflicted mainly on the Hindu population,  which was massacred or enslaved.
On that Friday night there were about 15, men in the city who Partition definition statistics of sexual immorality engaged from early eve till morning in plundering and burning the houses.