To evaluate whether the season of birth and sex are associated with preferences for bedtime among Chinese adults. A national population-based study on sleep preferences was conducted Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction Chinese in A questionnaire was used to collect information the sleep time of Chinese adults.
Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between season of birth and preferences for bedtime. Two sets of potential confounders were used in the adjusted models. Model 1 adjusted for age. Model 2 additionally adjusted for area, occupation, education level, smoking, and drinking.
The questionnaire was administered to a sample of Chinese adults. Men
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction a higher delayed mean sleep onset and offset time Women born in fall had the latest sleep onset time sleep offset time These associations were attenuated by additional adjustments of more confounders.
There were significant differences in sleep timing preferences between men Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction women.
Season of birth was not associated with sleep timing in Chinese adults. The duration and timing of sleep have been associated with both physical and mental health [ 123 ].
Sleep timing is an important aspect of sleep [ 4 ].
However, chronotype is not necessarily fixed and is subject to external factors as well. A study from Norway showed that sleep timing and chronotype are affected by changes in daylight hours; seasons with decreased daylight hours are associated with delayed
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction timing and chronotype compared to seasons with longer daylight hours [ 5 ].
The hypothesis that photoperiod at birth could act as a sort of imprinting phenomenon was put forward for the first time in [ 6 ]. Recently, Natale et al. Season of birth, associated with status and diseases [ 89 ], has been shown to be associated with sleep timing [ 1011 ]. The possible explanation is based on the circadian typology theory that individuals born during the spring or summer have internal clocks with days than those born in the autumn or winter.
This may potentially result in a phase delay for individuals born in the spring and summer and a phase advance in individuals born in the autumn and winter [ 1213 ].
However, most studies on sleep timing were conducted in Western countries. Of note, Doi et al. It was postulated that the difference in results Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction Doi et al. The measurement of sleep pattern is different from the measurement of sleep-timing preference, although the Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction are highly correlated. To our knowledge, there has been no population-based study for sleep timing conducted Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction China until Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the relationship between sex, season of birth, and sleep timing in a community-based Chinese population.
We presented two main hypotheses: The China Sub-Health Survey CSHS was initiated in and lasted for one month, with the aim Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction understand the health
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction based on a national sample. Details about the study design were reported in Sun et al. In brief, the CSHS selected individuals from six provinces and was designed to represent 1. A multi-stage, random cluster sampling design was used to draw study subjects.
All of 31 provinces or municipalities were divided Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction six
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction regions Northeast, North, East, Central South, Southwest, and Northwestaccording to administrative geography.
The areas of Jilin, Beijing, Jiangsu, Hubei, Chongqing and Gansu were selected randomly to represent those six administrative parts. The latitudes of each of the groups studied are: Then, each selected area was classified into urban and rural. We selected one or two urban and another one or two rural
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction randomly.
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction those selected study areas, college students, residents, local government staff, enterprise workers, and farmers were clustered and selected randomly as samples.
In total, 19, participants were surveyed, and 18, responded and filled out the Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction effectively response rate was We excluded individuals who: Finally, participants were included in the analysis.
Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Trained investigators explained details to participants on how to collect and record the data with a standard questionnaire by using the self-administrative method. Pertinent data that was collected included demographics, medical history, medications, preferences for bed time, wake-up time, and other information about sleep behavior. A questionnaire on sleep was translated and modified from the Horne-Ostberg [ 18 ] and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [ 19 ].
These time preferences were obtained from participants through
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction in the questionnaire that asked:. Preferred sleep duration and preferred midpoint of sleep time were calculated according to the following formulas:. In the analysis, preferences of sleep time was evaluated based on preferred onset time, preferred offset time, preferred duration and preferred midpoint.
Sleep time preferences were analyzed as continuous outcome variables and season of birth was analyzed as a categorical variable. According to birth date, season of birth was categorized into four groups: Winter was the reference group. Analysis of covariance ANCOVA was used to examine the association between season of birth and preferences of sleep time by sex. Model 2 additionally adjusted for living conditions, area, occupation, education level, marital status, smoking, and drinking.
All potential confounders are summarized in Table 1. All tests were two-sided and Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction level was set at 0.
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction were men and women Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction the study. The average age was 37 years for men, and 35 years for women, respectively.
The percentage of men born over the four seasons were Table 1 shows the baseline demographics of our study population by sex. Most people were highly educated, non-smoker, and non-drinker. Men had a delayed mean sleep onset and offset time Table 2 shows that in both sexes, people born in fall had the latest sleep onset time Of note, men born in spring had the earliest onset time but not women Adjust for age as continuous variablearea, education, occupation, and smoking, drinking.
Table 3 shows that in model 1 after adjusting for age, there was no significant difference on timing among different season of birth people.
In model 2, further adjustment of the age as continuous variablearea, education, occupation, Guang Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction wife sexual dysfunction, and drinking did not change the In model 2, additional adjustments for potential confounders attenuate the association on the sleep onset and sleep offset, but do not attenuate the association on midpoint of sleep time.
Our results indicated that men had a later mean sleep onset, offset and midpoint time than women. Our results were not in line with Dillon et al.
The differences in results between Eastern and Western studies on sleep could be due to biological differences between Caucasians and Asians, like polymorphism of circadian clock genes [ 21 ] and ocular photosensitivity [ 22 ]. The potential national and cultural differences Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction populations could significantly affect sleep preferences [ 6 Our results showed that there are no significant associations between season of birth and parameters of sleep time sleep onset time, offset time, midpoint of Our results confirmed a non-significant relationship between season of Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction and duration, which is in line with Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction studies
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction 10 ].
Regarding sleep timing, our confirmed that season of birth was not associated with offset time, which was reported by Tonetti et al.
The possible explanation is that societal pressure is more likely to modify the sleep-offset time. The variation on sleep timing preference by season of birth could be explained by potential confounders e. For example, Sun et al. However, our population was community-based and mostly healthy.
However, Harada et al. Thus significant results on the mid-sleep on women in our study could be due to chance. There are several limitations to our study. First, this study was based on self-reported questionnaires. Therefore, more objective quantitative measures will be preferred and included in our further research design.
Second, we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding, such as BMI [ 2526 ] and obstructive sleep apnea, since we did not have such information. Future studies with that information are warranted.
Our results suggest that there is a significant difference
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction sleep timing preference by sex but not season of birth. We wish to thank all the for their co-operation in the data collection.
Tan Xu and Guangliang Shan were responsible for recruitment and follow-up of study participants. Dongdong Lin was responsible for data cleaning and carried out the analyses. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Guang liang wife sexual dysfunction Published online May James Metzger 6 Histecon Associates, Inc. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 19; Accepted May This article is an open access article distributed under the and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: Introduction The duration and timing of sleep have been associated with both physical and mental health [ 123 Data Collection Trained investigators explained details to participants on how to collect and record the data with a standard questionnaire by using the self-administrative method.